Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 16 novel simian T cell leukemia virus type 1 from Africa: close relationship of STLV-1 from Allenopithecus nigroviridis to HTLV-1 subtype B strains

Virology. 2001 Sep 1;287(2):275-85. doi: 10.1006/viro.2001.1018.


A serological survey searching for antibodies reacting with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antigens was performed on a series of 263 sera/plasma obtained from 34 monkey species or subspecies, originating from different parts of Africa. Among them, 34 samples exhibited a typical HTLV-1 Western blot pattern. Polymerase chain reaction was performed with three primer sets specific either to HTLV-1/STLV-1 or HTLV-2 and encompassing gag, pol, and tax sequences, on genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 31 animals. The presence of HTLV-1/simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) related viruses was determined in the 21 HTLV-1 seropositive animals tested but not in the 10 HTLV-1 seronegative individuals. Proviral DNA sequences from the complete LTR (750 bp) and a portion of the env gene (522 bp) were determined for 16 new STLV-1 strains; some of them originating from species for which no STLV-1 molecular data were available as Allenopithecus nigroviridis and Cercopithecus nictitans. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these 16 new sequences belong to five different molecular groups. The A. nigroviridis STLV-1 strains exhibited a very strong nucleotide similarity with HTLV-1 of the subtype B. Furthermore, four novel STLV-1, found in Cercocebus torquatus, C. m. mona, C. nictitans, and Chlorocebus aethipos, were identical to each other and to a previously described Papio anubis STLV-1 strain (PAN 503) originating from the same primate center in Cameroon. Our data extend the range of the African primates who could be permissive and/or harbor naturally STLV-1 and provide new evidences of cross-transmission of African STLV-1 between different monkey species living in the same environment and also of STLV-1 transmissions from some monkeys to humans in Central Africa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Africa
  • Animals
  • Cercopithecinae / virology*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • Gene Products, env / genetics
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / classification
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / genetics
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / immunology
  • Phylogeny
  • Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 / classification*
  • Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 / genetics
  • Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 / immunology
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences / genetics
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • DNA, Viral
  • Gene Products, env
  • Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic
  • env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • gp21 protein, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1