Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related kidney disorders concern 30% of those patients and can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD; 6 to 10%). Therefore, the administration of antiretroviral drugs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with nephropathy is not uncommon.
Methods: The influence of ESRD on the different phases of the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs in general is examined in light of bioavailability, distribution, protein binding, metabolism, and elimination. Then, the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in hemodialysis are detailed.
Results: From these data, dosing recommendations are given for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs, and protease inhibitors (PIs).
Conclusion: Dosage adjustments are often necessary for patients with renal insufficiency. These adaptations have to be carefully performed to optimize drug exposure and reduce the risk of side effects.