The population of neurons participating in an epileptiform event varies from moment to moment. Most techniques currently used to localize epileptiform events in vivo have spatial and/or temporal sampling limitations. Here we show in an animal model that optical imaging based on intrinsic signals is an excellent method for in vivo mapping of clinically relevant epileptiform events, such as interictal spikes, ictal onsets, ictal spread and secondary homotopic foci. In addition, a decrease in the optical signal correlates spatially with a decrease in neuronal activity recorded from cortex surrounding an epileptic focus. Optical mapping of epilepsy might be a useful adjunct in the surgical treatment of neocortical epilepsy, which critically depends on the precise localization of intrinsically epileptogenic neurons.