Diabetes and its complications are major contributors to morbidity and mortality among Canada's Aboriginal populations. The epidemiology of diabetes among the Métis has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes among the Métis, to identify diabetes risk factors, and to test hypotheses related to diabetes etiology. The source of the data for this research was the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), a postcensal survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 1991. Study populations included the APS self-identified Métis and North American Indians of western Canada. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and to identify diabetes risk factors. Multiple logistic regression was performed to test etiological hypotheses regarding the determinants of diabetes. The crude prevalence of diabetes among the Métis (6%) was slightly less than that reported by North American Indians (7%) and twice the general rate for Canada (3%). Diabetes was significantly associated with age, sex, obesity, and level of education. The APS dataset was useful in establishing diabetes as a significant problem among the Métis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:542-551, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.