Objective: To report a retrospective case series of 29 Australian and New Zealand patients with orbital and adnexal Wegener's granulomatosis (WG).
Design: Retrospective case series.
Participants: Twenty-nine cases of orbital and adnexal WG were identified.
Methods: A number of oculoplastic surgeons and other clinicians in Australia and New Zealand was asked about their experience with orbital and adnexal WG. Clinical data regarding these cases were conveyed by means of a questionnaire. Cases of ophthalmic WG without features of orbital or adnexal disease were excluded.
Main outcome measures: Data obtained from the questionnaire includes age, gender, limited or generalized disease, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) status, symptoms and signs: nasolacrimal obstruction, sinusitis, fistula/orbital bone erosion, orbital mass/proptosis, extraocular muscle/diplopia, visual acuity reduction caused by optic nerve compression, orbital pain, lid edema/erythema, biopsy status, and treatment status.
Results: Twenty-nine patients with orbital and adnexal WG were identified and described. Symptoms included awareness of an orbital mass, epiphora, orbital pain and diplopia. Signs included an orbital mass or proptosis (69%), nasolacrimal duct obstruction (52%), limited ocular rotations (52%), lid erythema and edema (31%), bony destruction (21%), and reduced visual acuity (17%). Two patients had a persistent nasolacrimocanthal fistula. Cytoplasmic pattern antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) were present in 52% of patients, and in 9 of 10 patients with generalized disease. However, c-ANCA was positive in only 32% (6 of 19) of patients with limited WG. Perinuclear pattern antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) was positive in 10% of cases.
Conclusions: To diagnose and treat ophthalmic WG effectively, the clinician must be aware of its protean orbital and adnexal manifestations. WG may occur with or without systemic involvement, and c-ANCA was negative in approximately half our cases. Our cases also demonstrated two orbital fistulae, an observation previously believed to be rare.