NASA: This article discusses research done by Doolittle et al. to determine the evolutionary distance between eubacteria and eukaryotes. Several equations for estimating evolutionary distances and divergence times are considered. Molecular clock calculations and their effects on these estimates are discussed. The authors conclude that their research supports the range of dates for the cenancestor of modern eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes estimated by Doolittle et al.