Countermeasure of the negative effects of weightlessness on physical systems in long-term space flights

Acta Astronaut. 1995 Oct-Dec;36(8-12):661-8. doi: 10.1016/0094-5765(95)00156-5.


The system of countermeasure of microgravity effects has been developed in Russia that allowed to perform safely long-term space flights. This system that includes different means and methods such as special regimens of physical exercises, axial loading ("Pingiun") and antigravity suits, low body negative pressure device (LBNP, "Chibis") and "cuffs" and others has been used with certain variations at certain stages of flight in 27 successfully accomplished space flights that lasted from 60 to 439 days. The pre-, in- and postflight studies performed in 57 crew members of these flights have shown that the system of countermeasure is effective in preventing or diminishing to a great extent almost all the negative effects of weightlessness in flights of a year and more duration and that the intensity and duration of changes recorded in different body systems after flights do not correlate significantly to flight durations, correlating strongly to the volume and intensity of physical exercises used during flight and especially during concluding stage of it.

MeSH terms

  • Aerospace Medicine
  • Astronauts / education
  • Ergometry
  • Exercise Therapy*
  • Exercise*
  • Extravehicular Activity
  • Fluid Shifts
  • Gravity Suits
  • Humans
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure
  • Sodium Chloride / therapeutic use
  • Space Flight*
  • Weightlessness / adverse effects*
  • Weightlessness Countermeasures*


  • Sodium Chloride