The detection of anti-donor-HLA antibodies in a renal allograft recipient's serum, either at the time of or after transplantation, is usually associated with specific antibody-mediated clinical syndromes. These can be divided temporally into three categories: hyperacute rejection, acute humoral rejection and chronic humoral rejection. With the identification of new immunosuppressive drug combinations, more-effective control of alloantibody production has been recently achieved in humans. Thus, prevention and/or treatment of antibody-mediated allograft injury are now possible. Ultimately, the induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism may allow us to overcome the problem of allosensitization and accept an allograft without chronic immunosuppression.