Background: Isolated late asthmatic reactions can be provoked by intradermal challenge of allergen-derived T-cell peptide epitopes.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the isolated LAR is associated with the local accumulation of inflammatory cells, the expression of T(H)2 cytokines, and the production of pharmacologic mediators.
Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. The investigation involved bronchial and skin biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from 8 cat-allergic subjects who developed significant late asthmatic reactions 6 hours after intradermal injection of Fel d 1 chain 1-derived peptides (FC1Ps).
Results: Immunostaining of bronchial biopsy specimens showed no changes in the numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils, mast cells, CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD25(+) cells or macrophages, or cells mRNA(+) for IL-4, IL-5, or IL-13 when the FC1P day was compared with the diluent control day. There were also no significant differences in eosinophil numbers, either in BAL fluids or in peripheral blood after FC1P challenge. Furthermore, there were no significant alterations in the concentrations of histamine, histamine-releasing factors, or eicosanoids (LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4), PGD(2), PGE(2), TXB(2), PGF(2alpha)) in BAL fluids. FC1Ps induced a significant (P <.05) elevation in CD8(+) cells in the skin and an unexpected decrease in IL-5 in BAL fluids (P =.043).
Conclusion: Part of the asthma process might involve T cell-dependent airway narrowing with no requirement for IgE, mast cells, or infiltrating inflammatory cells.