Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, multidrug resistance protein 2. On the other hand, a multiplicity of canalicular organic anion transport has been suggested. Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7beta-epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is clinically used for various hepatobiliary diseases. In our previous study, the contribution of multidrug resistance protein 2 for biliary excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates depended on the numbers of hydroxyl residue. Therefore, to further examine the effect of hydrophobicity on the substrate specificity of multidrug resistance protein 2, we examined the effect of bile acid conjugates and organic anions on biliary excretion of tauroursodeoxycholate-3-sulfate, taurine and sulfonate-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid, in rats. Biliary tauroursodeoxycholate-3-sulfate excretions was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats. Taurolithocholate-3-sulfate inhibited but ursodeoxycholate-3,7-disulfate did not affect biliary tauroursodeoxycholate-3-sulfate excretion. Biliary tauroursodeoxycholate-3-sulfate excretion was inhibited by sulfobromophthalein, but was not inhibited by dibromosulfophthalein and cefpiramide. These findings indicate that tauroursodeoxycholate-3-sulfate is very specific for multidrug resistance protein 2.