Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), an aminophospholipid, acts extracellularly as a ligand via the specific G protein-coupled receptors of the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) 1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 receptors family and intracellularly as a second messenger in various cellular types. The aim of this work was to investigate biological activity of S1P in cardiomyocytes with respect to related sphingolipids. S1P was applied for 48 h on rat neonatal cardiomyocytes at 10 nM, 100 nM and 1 microM. S1P induced a concentration-dependent cellular hypertrophy evidenced by an increase in cell size, [3H]-phenylalanine incorporation, protein content and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) secretion. Among the lipids tested S1P exhibits the lower EC50 (67 nM) followed by dihydro-S1P (107 nM) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (1.6 microM). The effect of S1P could be related to a stimulation of the EDG1 receptor since we showed that the EDG1 receptor is predominantly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in rat cardiomyocytes and that specific anti-EDG1 antibodies inhibited the hypertrophic effect induced by S1P. Furthermore the expression level of most other EDG receptors for S1P appeared very low in cardiac myocytes. S1P (100 nM) increased the phosphorylation of p42/44MAPK, p38MAPK, JNK, Akt and p70(S6K), this effect being reversed by inhibitors of their respective phosphorylation which also rescue the hypertrophic phenotype. Finally, S1P stimulated actin stress fibre formation reverted by the Rho inhibitor, the C3 exoenzyme. Altogether, our results show that S1P induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy mainly via the EDG1 receptor and subsequently via Gi through ERKs, p38 MAPK, JNK, PI3K and via Rho pathway.
Copyright 2001 Academic Press.