Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and varying degrees of cytopenia. In addition, various immunological abnormalities have been noted. To clarify the issue of immunological competence or incompetence in SDS, we prospectively studied immune function in 11 patients with SDS. Seven suffered from recurrent bacterial infections and six from recurrent viral infections. Varying degrees of impairment were readily identified. All patients had neutropenia; total lymphocyte counts, however, were normal in all except one patient. Nine patients had B-cell defects comprising one or more of the following abnormalities: low IgG or IgG subclasses, low percentage of circulating B lymphocytes, decreased in vitro B-lymphocyte proliferation and a lack of specific antibody production. Seven out of nine patients studied had at least one T-cell abnormality comprising a low percentage of total circulating T lymphocytes or CD3+/CD4+ cell subpopulations or decreased in vitro T-lymphocyte proliferation. Five out of six patients studied had decreased percentages of circulating natural killer cells. Moreover, neutrophil chemotaxis was significantly low in all the patients studied. These data point to a major immunodeficiency component in SDS that places patients at heightened risk of infections, even if neutrophil numbers are protective. This finding broadens the definition of the syndrome substantially: it suggests that the SDS marrow defect occurs at the level of an early haematological-lymphocytic stem cell or that a combined marrow and thymic stromal defect accounts for the aberrant function of haematopoietic and lymphopoietic lineages.