Magnesium deficiency has been reported in patients with classical coeliac disease. Classical coeliac disease has been recently very rare, but the frequency of the silent or latent form has increased. The aim of the study was to evaluate the magnesium status in patients with coeliac disease diagnosed according to ESPGAN criteria. 41 GFD(+) patients aged 6-18 years, who were on a gluten-free diet (GFD) for 2.8 to 17.3 years (mean 11 years); with normal villous structure and IgAEmA(-), and 32 GFD(-) patients aged 5-17 years, with villous atrophy and IgAEmA(+): 8--after 7/12-13/12 of gluten challenge, 4--with late onset of coeliac disease, 20--with silent coeliac disease. All of the children did not have any other disorders. Magnesium status was examined by using: an i.v. Mg-loading test (30 mmol/1.73 m2); Mg urinary excretion and Mg concentration in serum, erythrocytes, and in hair. Abnormal values in GFD(+) and GFD(-) patients were found in: Mg i.v. loading test (retention > 40%) in 20 vs 34%, serum Mg (< 0.7 mmol/l) in 7 vs 3%, erythrocytes Mg (< 1.8 mmol/l) in 20 vs 25%. The reversed statistically significant correlation was found between Mg retention and Mg urinary excretion (R = -0.293, p = 0.009). No other statistically significant correlations were found.
Conclusion: The magnesium deficiency was present in all patients with classical coeliac disease, but only in 1/5 of patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet and in 1/5 of patients with silent coeliac disease.