Cyclin E is an important regulator of entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. p27/Kip1 (p27) binds to cyclin E/Cdk2 complex and negatively regulates cell proliferation. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of cyclin E and p27 in 98 cases of resected lung adenocarcinoma to evaluate the prognostic significance of cyclin E and p27. Cyclin E was expressed in 16 cases (16%), and p27 was expressed in 41 cases (42%). Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with cyclin E positive (P=0.0017) and p27 negative (P=0.011), both individually and in combination (P<0.0001), had a worse prognosis. We also analyzed the relationship of these findings to clinicopathological parameters, which revealed that cyclin E-positive, p27-negative cases had a higher Ki67 expression (P=0.012) and a higher rate of lymph node metastasis (P=0.0078) than other groups. Our results suggested that cyclin E over expression, in association with p27 reduction in particular, may potentially be a poor prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, to verify the prognostic significance of these factors, a multivariate analysis of a larger number of patients should be undertaken.