In transient pseudohypoaldosteronism (TPHA), renal tubular resistance to aldosterone is thought to be secondary to renal disease. We report a case of TPHA caused by posterior urethral valves associated with urinary tract infection and review 62 cases previously reported. The infant presented with unspecific signs of vomiting and dehydration, so that pyloric stenosis was first suspected. Laboratory data and retroperitoneal sonography led to the diagnosis TPHA. This case illustrates that urine culture and renal ultrasonography should be performed in any infant with electrolyte disturbances to exclude infection or obstructive uropathy.