Although genome analyses have suggested parallels between archaeal and eukaryotic replication systems, little is known about the DNA replication mechanism in Archaea. By two-dimensional gel electrophoreses we positioned a replication origin (oriC) within 1 kb in the chromosomal DNA of Pyrococcus abyssi, an anaerobic hyperthermophile, and demonstrated that the oriC is physically linked to the cdc6 gene. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that P. abyssi Cdc6 and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins bind preferentially to the oriC region in the exponentially growing cells. Whereas the oriC association of MCM was specifically inhibited by stopping DNA replication with puromycin treatment, Cdc6 protein stayed bound to the replication origin after de novo protein synthesis was inhibited. Our data suggest that archaeal and eukaryotic Cdc6 and MCM proteins function similarly in replication initiation and imply that an oriC association of MCM could be regulated by an unknown mechanism in Archaea.