Effect of the pseudorabies virus US3 protein on nuclear membrane localization of the UL34 protein and virus egress from the nucleus

J Gen Virol. 2001 Oct;82(Pt 10):2363-2371. doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-82-10-2363.


The alphaherpesvirus UL34 protein is necessary for the primary envelopment of intranuclear capsids at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane. In herpes simplex virus type 1, the UL34 protein is exclusively phosphorylated by the protein kinase encoded by the non-essential US3 gene. To investigate the effect of the pseudorabies virus (PrV) US3 product on the intracellular localization of the UL34 protein and on virus morphogenesis, PrV US3 deletion mutants were isolated and characterized. Immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that in the absence of the US3 protein, the localization of the UL34 polypeptide to the nuclear membrane was not as pronounced as that seen with US3, although immunoelectron microscopy indicated the presence of the UL34 protein in both leaflets of the nuclear membrane. Ultrastructurally, an accumulation of enveloped virions in the perinuclear space in large invaginations of the inner nuclear membrane was observed, which were shown by immunoelectron microscopy to contain the UL34 protein, but not glycoproteins gB or gC. Thus, the US3 protein appears to be involved in the de-envelopment of perinuclear virions by fusion with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane. Surprisingly, no difference in the phosphorylation of the PrV UL34 protein was observed in the presence or absence of the US3 kinase. Therefore, the observed effects of the PrV US3 protein on the intracellular localization of the UL34 protein and on virus morphogenesis are probably not due to the phosphorylation of the UL34 protein by the US3 kinase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Nucleus / virology*
  • Herpesvirus 1, Suid / physiology*
  • Nuclear Envelope / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Viral Proteins / metabolism*
  • Viral Proteins / physiology*


  • UL34 protein, Human herpesvirus 1
  • Viral Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases