TGF-beta1 promotes liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer by modulating the capacity of cellular invasion

Int J Oncol. 2001 Oct;19(4):709-15. doi: 10.3892/ijo.19.4.709.


We investigated the effect of TGF-beta1 on liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer using surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer and human pancreatic cancer cell lines Capan-2 and SW1990. Immunostaining of TGF-beta1 showed that TGF-beta1 positivity was significantly related to venous invasion and tumor staging, and also relatively associated with liver metastasis. Cellular invasion and protease production of MMP-2 and u-PA, and in vivo liver metastasis were significantly enhanced after treatment of cells with TGF-beta1. These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 might play an important role in enhancing liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / secondary*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases