Salvage therapies for refractory variceal hemorrhage

Clin Liver Dis. 2001 Aug;5(3):709-25. doi: 10.1016/s1089-3261(05)70189-6.


Refractory variceal bleeding is defined as bleeding that continues through adequate pharmacologic and endoscopic therapy. In patients with end-stage liver disease, the only option for long-term salvage is liver transplantation. In patients with well-preserved liver function (Child's class A and class B-7), other salvage options such as surgical shunt, TIPS, and devascularization procedures can achieve good outcome. The long-term survival depends on the underlying liver disease, rather than on the variceal bleeding per se.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Decompression, Surgical / methods
  • Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic
  • Salvage Therapy*
  • Varicose Veins / complications*
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures