Effect of Salt Intake on Renal Excretion of Water in Humans

Hypertension. 2001 Sep;38(3):317-20. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp.38.3.317.

Abstract

Two studies were performed to determine the quantitative relationship between salt intake and urinary volume (U(v)) in humans. In study 1, 104 untreated hypertensives were studied on the fifth day of a high- and a low-salt diet. The 24-hour U(v) was 2.2 L (urinary sodium [U(Na)] 277 mmol) on the high-salt diet and decreased to 1.3 L (P<0.001) (U(Na) 20.8 mmol) on the low-salt diet. The reduction in 24-hour U(v) was significantly related to the decrease in 24-hour U(Na) (P<0.001) and predicts that a 100-mmol/d reduction in salt intake would decrease 24-hour U(v) by 367 mL. In study 2, 634 untreated hypertensives were studied on their usual diet. There was a significant relationship between 24-hour U(v) and U(Na) (P<0.001). This predicts that a 100-mmol/d reduction in salt intake would decrease 24-hour U(v) by 454 mL. The International Study of Salt and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) of 1731 hypertensives and 8343 normotensives on their usual diet showed that 24-hour U(v) was significantly related to U(Na) (P<0.001) and predicted that a 100-mmol/d reduction in salt intake would decrease 24-hour U(v) by 379 and 399 mL in hypertensives and normotensives, respectively. These findings document the important effect that salt intake has on U(v). The recommended reduction in salt intake in the general population is from 10 to 5 g/d. This would reduce fluid intake in the population by approximately 350 mL/d per person. This would have a large impact on the sales of soft drinks, mineral water, and beer.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Hypertension / urine
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sodium / urine
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urination / drug effects*
  • Urodynamics / drug effects
  • Water / metabolism

Substances

  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Water
  • Sodium