The risk factors for and presentation of Candida tropicalis fungemia, in comparison with those of Candida albicans, have been incompletely characterized. We compared 43 cases of C. tropicalis fungemia with 148 cases of C. albicans fungemia. In univariate analysis, patients with C. tropicalis fungemia were more likely to have leukemia (P=.0006), prolonged neutropenia (P=.03), and a positive blood culture for more days (P=.02). The 2 groups did not differ with regard to baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, frequency of catheter-associated fungemia, or response to antifungals. In multivariate analysis, patients with C. tropicalis fungemia were more likely to have leukemia (P=.02), previous neutropenia (P=.002), and a longer stay in the intensive care unit during the infectious episode (P=.01). Also, the response of the breakthrough C. tropicalis fungemia was lower (P=.05). In conclusion, the host determinants associated with susceptibility to C. tropicalis are leukemia and prolonged neutropenia.