Hypothalamic amenorrhea. The effects of environmental stresses on the reproductive system: a central effect of the central nervous system

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;30(3):611-29. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8529(05)70204-8.


Although the treatment of anovulation has become significantly more specialized and complex in the centuries since Hippocrates, a complete understanding of the causes and mechanisms of hypothalamic amenorrhea has not been achieved. Even the best research on hypothalamic amenorrhea is plagued by the lack of longitudinal studies, the use of different exercise models, the difficulty of controlling for caloric intake, and the fact that genetics may have a role in the disorder. Continuing research on metabolic rate, leptin, and other factors will ultimately answer many of the outstanding questions and will help to create better tools for treating this disorder.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amenorrhea / etiology
  • Amenorrhea / physiopathology*
  • Central Nervous System / physiopathology*
  • Environment*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamic Diseases / complications
  • Hypothalamic Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Hypothalamic Hormones / physiology*
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Stress, Physiological / physiopathology*


  • Hypothalamic Hormones