Objective: The present study was undertaken with the following aims and objectives. a) To determine the prevalence of diabetes. b) To compare the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetic subjects, diagnosed by the ADA and WHO criteria. c) To determine to what extent prevalence rates are affected by gender, age and body mass index.
Methods: The study population consisted of 520 subjects aged 20 years and above selected by random sampling. Blood glucose both fasting and post glucose (75 gms) two hours sample were analyzed. Baseline clinical data like height, weight and blood pressure were recorded. Known cases of diabetes were excluded from the study.
Results: The prevalence of diabetes (fasting blood glucose) as per WHO criteria was 4.61% while it was 7.5% as per ADA criteria. The prevalence according to the two hour glucose reading was 6.15%. The mean glucose level increase with age. With increasing BMI the percentage of diabetic subjects also increases. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 8.6% in subjects below 50 years and 13.4% in subjects older than 50 years. IGT values also increase with increasing age and BMI. 1.3% of subjects had normal fasting glucose level (< 126 mgm%) but high post glucose levels (> 200 mgm%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT is higher as compared to earlier studies. The mean blood glucose and IGT increase with increasing age and BMI. Several subjects had normal fasting blood glucose but increased two hour blood glucose level indicating that fasting glucose alone should not be used to diagnose DM. Urbanization and life style of residents of Dombivli contribute to the high prevalence.