In order to examine whether the basal ganglia are involved in arbitrary visuomotor association, we recorded neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) of monkeys during a conditional visuomotor learning task. Two monkeys were presented a cueing visual stimulus, and following a delay period required to push, pull or turn a manipulator according to the cue. GPi neurons showed changes in activity during the delay period when the animals performed the task on the basis of a familiar stimulus-response association. Those changes in delay activity were enhanced as the monkeys were learning a new visuomotor association. The enhancement of the changes was selective to a following response. These results suggest that the basal ganglia are involved in arbitrary visuomotor association, especially during the learning of new associations.