Protein export from the nucleus

Traffic. 2001 Oct;2(10):684-9. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0854.2001.21002.x.


The evolution of the nucleus imposed on eukaryotic cells the necessity to strictly control exchange of molecules between the nucleus and the remainder of the cell, not only to protect and correctly transmit genetic information, but also to coordinate nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. Studies over the past 10 years have provided major insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In addition, regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of diverse cellular factors has emerged as one of the most efficient mechanism to adapt gene expression to the cell environment, for example by controlling the access of transcriptional regulators to their target genes. In this review, we focus on the molecular basis of protein nuclear export that relies on interactions between targeting sequences present on the cargoes, specific export receptors or exportins and nuclear pore proteins, with special emphasis on the role of the Ran GTPase and associated proteins in this process.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / physiology
  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Karyopherins / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Pore / metabolism*
  • Protein Transport / physiology


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Karyopherins
  • protein kinase modulator