Background: Poor metabolic control of diabetes mellitus (DM) has often been associated with the severity of periodontal disease. The aim of this report is to present a 9-year-old female with localized aggressive periodontitis who had a history of type 1 DM and the outcome of her treatment.
Methods: The patient had received medical, clinical, and radiographic periodontal examinations. Peripheral blood analysis was done as well. She had non-surgical periodontal treatment, and medical management of her diabetes was performed at the same time. She was followed longitudinally for 5 years.
Results: Medical examination revealed no pathological findings except for growth retardation. Laboratory tests showed that she had poor metabolic control, with 497 mg/dl fasting blood glucose and 15.6% HbA1c. The random migration and neutrophil chemotaxis were significantly reduced. Periodontal treatment and metabolic control of her diabetes resulted in significant improvement in her periodontal condition. No incipient periodontal breakdown was observed around the teeth after 5 years from baseline.
Conclusions: This report proves the efficiency of periodontal therapy in the prevention of future periodontal breakdown in a systemically compromised patient. It seems that in certain individuals who are predisposed to the aggressive forms of periodontitis, clinical and medical examinations and intervention to the systemic condition, in combination with periodontal treatment, are important in the management of these individuals.