Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a rapidly evolving ophthalmic surgical procedure. Several anatomic and refractive complications have been identified. Anatomic complications include corneal flap abnormalities, epithelial ingrowth, and corneal ectasia. Refractive complications include unexpected refractive outcomes, irregular astigmatism, decentration, visual aberrations, and loss of vision. Infectious keratitis, dry eyes, and diffuse lamellar keratitis may also occur following LASIK. By examining the etiology, management, and prevention of these complications, the refractive surgeon may be able to improve visual outcomes and prevent vision-threatening problems. Reporting outcomes and mishaps of LASIK surgery will help refine our approach to the management of emerging complications.