Realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in lower dimensions

Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Sep 24;87(13):130402. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.130402. Epub 2001 Sep 4.


Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms have been prepared in optical and magnetic traps in which the energy-level spacing in one or two dimensions exceeds the interaction energy between atoms, realizing condensates of lower dimensionality. The crossover into two-dimensional and one-dimensional condensates was observed by a change in aspect ratio and by the release energy converging to a nonzero value when the number of trapped atoms was reduced.