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Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Estrogen, Activates the Human Orphan Nuclear Receptor, Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Transcription

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Bisphenol-A, an Environmental Estrogen, Activates the Human Orphan Nuclear Receptor, Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Transcription

A Takeshita et al. Eur J Endocrinol.

Abstract

Background: There is increasing concern about endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may produce adverse health effects in humans and other species. One such chemical, bisphenol-A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics, is widely used in consumer products; it has been reported to contain estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptors. Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is one of the key enzymes for the metabolism of endogenous steroids and foreign chemicals in liver. The orphan nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR/PXR), has recently been isolated. A variety of known inducers of CYP3A4 bind to SXR/PXR, and stimulate transcription on xenobiotic-response elements (XREs) located in the promoter region of the CYP3A4 gene. Recent study has shown that EDCs, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and nonylphenol, but not BPA, induce mouse SXR/PXR-mediated transcription. However, it is known that species differences in SXR alter CYP3A inducibility.

Objective: To test whether BPA stimulates human SXR/PXR-mediated transcription using reporter gene assays.

Methods: Transfection assays were performed with human SXR/PXR expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid containing the XREs in the CYP3A4 gene promoter in HepG2 cells. BPA-induced interaction of human SXR/PXR with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) was analyzed by mammalian two-hybrid assays.

Results: BPA, as well as DEHP, activated human SXR-mediated transcription on the XREs. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, BPA recruited SRC-1 to the ligand-binding domain of human SXR/PXR.

Conclusions: Our observations have indicated that BPA may be a human-specific inducer of the CYP3A4 gene, and may influence the metabolism of endogenous steroids, drugs, and other xenobiotics.

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