CITED1, a CBP/p300-binding nuclear protein that does not bind directly to DNA, is a transcriptional coregulator. Here, we show evidence that CITED1 functions as a selective coactivator for estrogen-dependent transcription. When transfected, CITED1 enhanced transcriptional activation by the ligand-binding/AF2 domain of both estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta in an estrogen-dependent manner, but it affected transcriptional activities of other nuclear receptors only marginally. CITED1 bound directly to ERalpha in an estrogen-dependent manner through its transactivating domain, and this binding activity was separable from its p300-binding activity. CITED1 was strongly expressed in nulliparous mouse mammary epithelial cells and, when expressed in ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells by transduction, exogenous CITED1 enhanced sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to estrogen, stabilizing the estrogen-dependent interaction between p300 and ERalpha. The estrogen-induced expression of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) mRNA transcript was enhanced in the CITED1-expressing MCF-7 cells, whereas estrogen-induced expression of the mRNA transcripts for progesterone receptor or pS2 was not affected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that endogenous CITED1 is recruited to the chromosomal TGF-alpha promoter in MCF-7 cells in an estrogen-dependent manner but not to the pS2 promoter. These results suggest that CITED1 may play roles in regulation of estrogen sensitivity in a gene-specific manner.