DNA replication efficiency is dictated by DNA polymerases (pol) and their associated proteins. The recent discovery of DNA polymerase Y family (DinB/UmuC/RAD30/REV1 superfamily) raises a question of whether the DNA polymerase activities are modified by accessory proteins such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In fact, the activity of DNA pol IV (DinB) of Escherichia coli is enhanced upon interaction with the beta subunit, the processivity factor of DNA pol III. Here, we report the activity of Sso DNA pol Y1 encoded by the dbh gene of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is greatly enhanced by the presence of PCNA and replication factor C (RFC). Sso pol Y1 per se was a distributive enzyme but a substantial increase in the processivity was observed on poly(dA)-oligo(dT) in the presence of PCNA (039p or 048p) and RFC. The length of the synthesized DNA product reached at least 200 nucleotides. Sso pol Y1 displayed a higher affinity for DNA compared with pol IV of E. coli, suggesting that the two DNA polymerases have distinct reason(s) to require the processivity factors for efficient DNA synthesis. The abilities of pol Y1 and pol IV to bypass DNA lesions and their sensitive sites to protease are also discussed.