Early antibiotic treatment of airway colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa can delay onset of chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. Whether the pathogen is eradicated by this treatment is unclear. We successfully eradicated the organism in 14 of 15 patients with cystic fibrosis who had been colonised by P aeruginosa. Patients inhaled 80 mg tobramycin twice daily for 12 months. Eradication was confirmed by sequential respiratory cultures and serum antibody titres that were negative for P aeruginosa. Our antibiotic therapy regimen maintained pulmonary function at high levels.