Influx of Ca(2+) through presynaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is a key step in rapid neurotransmitter release. The amount of Ca(2+) entering through these channels is modulated by a plethora of intracellular messenger molecules, including betagamma-subunits of G proteins, and protein kinases. In addition, Ca(2+) channels bind physically to proteins of the vesicle-release machinery in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, which can, in turn, regulate the activity of Ca(2+) channels. Recent evidence suggests that second messengers and presynaptic vesicle-release proteins do not regulate Ca(2+) channel activity as independent entities, but that there is extensive crosstalk between these two mechanisms. The complex interactions between second messengers, vesicle-release proteins and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels might provide multiple avenues for fine-tuning Ca(2+) entry into the presynaptic terminal and, consequently, neurotransmission.