Bioassay and biochemical analyses of insecticide resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Bull Entomol Res. 2001 Aug;91(4):265-72. doi: 10.1079/ber2001108.


Anopheles funestus Giles has been implicated as a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa where pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture and public health. Samples of this species from northern Kwazulu/Natal in South Africa and the Beluluane region of southern Mozambique showed evidence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insecticide exposure, synergist and biochemical assays conducted on A. funestus suggested that elevated levels of mixed function oxidases were responsible for the detoxification of pyrethroids in resistant mosquitoes in these areas. The data suggested that this mechanism was also conferring cross-resistance to the carbamate insecticide propoxur.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / drug effects*
  • Anopheles / enzymology
  • Biological Assay
  • Female
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Insecticides / pharmacology*
  • Nitriles
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Pesticide Synergists / pharmacology
  • Piperonyl Butoxide / pharmacology
  • Propoxur / pharmacology*
  • Pyrethrins / pharmacology*


  • Insecticides
  • Nitriles
  • Pesticide Synergists
  • Pyrethrins
  • decamethrin
  • Propoxur
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Piperonyl Butoxide
  • cyhalothrin