In a hospital-based case-control study, we examined dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and ovarian cancer risk among 496 women with primary, histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,425 women with nonneoplastic diagnoses, ages 20-87 years, admitted to Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998. Data on diet and other relevant risk factors in the few years before admission were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, region of residence, regularity of menstruation, family history of ovarian cancer, parity, age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, and energy intake. Women in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of total energy had a weak increase in risk (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.90-1.73). Significantly reduced risks were associated with higher intakes of dietary fiber (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.38-0.87), vitamin A (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.98), carotenoid (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.43-0.93), vitamin E (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.88), beta-carotene (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.46-0.98), and total fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42-0.92). Our findings suggest that a diet high in plant foods may be important in reducing risk of ovarian cancer.