In this article, we summarize Arabidopsis genes encoding ubiquitin, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and an additional selected set of proteins related to ubiquitylation. We emphasize comparisons to components from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with occasional reference to animals. Among the E1 and E2s, Arabidopsis usually has two to four probable orthologs to one yeast gene. Also, Arabidopsis has genes with no likely ortholog in yeast, although they often have potential orthologs in animals. The large number of components with known function in ubiquitylation indicates that this process plays a complex role in cellular physiology.