Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration into tissues in host defense and inflammatory disease causes increased vascular permeability and edema formation through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the involvement of a paracrine mechanism in neutrophil-evoked alteration in endothelial barrier function. We show that upon neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial lining, leukocytic beta2 integrin signaling triggers the release of neutrophil-borne heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37/azurocidin, a member of the serprocidin family of neutrophil cationic proteins. HBP induced Ca++-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement and intercellular gap formation in endothelial-cell monolayers in vitro, and increased macromolecular efflux in microvessels in vivo. Moreover, selective inactivation of HBP prevented the neutrophils from inducing endothelial hyperpermeability. Our data suggest a fundamental role of neutrophil-derived HBP in the vascular response to neutrophil trafficking in inflammation. Targeting this molecule in inflammatory disease conditions offers a new strategy for prevention of endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by misdirected leukocyte activation.