Markers for mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in African American and Hispanic populations

Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Nov;69(5):1080-94. doi: 10.1086/323922.


Population linkage disequilibrium occurs as a consequence of mutation, selection, genetic drift, and population substructure produced by admixture of genetically distinct ethnic populations. African American and Hispanic ethnic groups have a history of significant gene flow among parent groups, which can be of value in affecting genome scans for disease-gene discovery in the case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test designs. Disease-gene discovery using mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) requires a map of polymorphic markers that differentiate between the founding populations, along with differences in disease-gene allele frequencies. We describe markers appropriate for MALD mapping by assessing allele frequencies of 744 short tandem repeats (STRs) in African Americans, Hispanics, European Americans, and Asians, by choosing STR markers that have large differences in composite delta, log-likelihood ratios, and/or I*(2) for MALD. Additional markers can be added to this MALD map by utilization of the rapidly growing single-nucleotide-polymorphism databases and the literature, to achieve a 3-10-cM scanning scale. The map will be useful for studies of diseases, including prostate and breast cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease, that have large differences in incidence between the founding populations of either Hispanics or African Americans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • African Americans
  • African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping / methods
  • Continental Population Groups / genetics*
  • Founder Effect
  • Gene Frequency / genetics*
  • Genetic Markers / genetics*
  • Genome, Human
  • Hispanic Americans / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Linkage Disequilibrium / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • Software
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences / genetics


  • Genetic Markers