Second primary neoplasms among 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative malignancy patients in Sweden, 1958-1996: a search for common mechanisms

Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep 28;85(7):997-1005. doi: 10.1054/bjoc.2001.1998.


The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse site-specific risk of second primary malignancies following 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative disorders (HLPD) diagnosed between 1958 and 1996. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of a second malignancy was calculated as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of second malignancies by applying site-, sex-, age-, period-, residence- and occupation-specific rates in the corresponding population in the Database to the appropriate person-years at risk. Among 18 960 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), there was over a 3-fold significant increase in cancer of the tongue, small intestine, nose, kidney and nervous system, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, NHL, Hodgkin's disease (HD) and lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. Among 5353 patients with HD, there was over a 4-fold significant increase in cancer of the salivary glands, nasopharynx and thyroid, NHL and myeloid leukaemia, and over a 1.6-fold increase in cancer of the stomach, colon, lung, breast, skin (melanoma and SCC), nervous system and soft tissues and lymphoid leukaemia. Among 28 846 patients with myeloma and leukaemia, there was a significant increase in cancer of the skin, nervous system and non-thyroid endocrine glands and all HLPD except for myeloma. Our findings showed some clustering between first and second primaries among Epstein-Barr virus-, ultraviolet radiation- and immunosuppression-related cancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Databases, Factual
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Leukemia / complications*
  • Lymphoma / complications*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / complications*
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology*
  • Occupations
  • Registries*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology


  • Immunosuppressive Agents