To map precise myocardial perfusion anatomy, we correlated detailed coronary arteriographic anatomy for every coronary artery and all secondary branches in the heart that had flow-limiting stenosis with corresponding specific, circumscribed, myocardial perfusion defects by positron emission tomography. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with abnormal coronary arteriograms showing any visible coronary artery narrowing of greater than 10% diameter stenosis underwent positron emission tomography perfusion imaging at rest and after dipyridamole stress; the data obtained were processed automatically into 3-dimensional topographic displays of relative radionuclide uptake in anterior, septal, left lateral, and inferior quadrant views, without attenuation artifacts, depth-dependent resolution, or spatial distortion of polar displays. The selection criterion for detailed anatomic analysis was the presence of a discrete, localized, moderate to severe, dipyridamole-induced perfusion defect, defined by automated algorithms as 1 quadrant view outside 2 SDs of healthy control subjects with which a specific stenotic coronary artery and/or its secondary branches could be correlated unequivocally on the coronary arteriogram for mapping precise perfusion anatomy, not for determining sensitivity or specificity. Because the anatomy of myocardial perfusion is inherently not statistical data, the results are presented as a summary atlas and series of individual cases that illustrate myocardial perfusion anatomy. Because the patterns of myocardial perfusion anatomy were derived from a large number of subjects, the atlas provides generalized information, not previously published, that correlates detailed arteriographic anatomy with perfusion anatomy including secondary diagonal, marginal, and posterior descending branches of the coronary arteries.