Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS, #175200) and Carney complex (CNC, OMIM#160980) are the two most common multiple neoplasia syndromes associated with lentiginosis. Both disorders are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and they have recently been elucidated at the molecular level. PJS and CNC share manifestations with Cowden syndrome (or Cowden disease) (CS, OMIM#158350) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRR, OMIM#153480). The endocrine tumors of CS and PJS, which could classify these disorders as variant types of multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs), are not present in most CS and BRR patients, but lentigines are shared by PJS, CNC and BRR. The serine-threonine kinase STK11 (or LKB1), located on 19p13, is mutated in more than half of all PJS kindreds. The R1alpha subunit of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase A, located on 17q22-24, is mutated in 40% of CNC kindreds. The protein phosphatase PTEN is mutated in most cases of CS and in almost 50% of BRR kindreds, despite significant clinical heterogeneity in these syndromes. The molecular elucidation of the lentiginoses and their related syndromes identifies new pathways of growth control and cellular regulation that are important for endocrine signaling, tumorigenesis, cutaneous function and embryonic development.
Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel