Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

Nature. 2001 Oct 11;413(6856):591-6. doi: 10.1038/35098000.


All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cnidaria
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Desert Climate
  • Ecosystem*
  • Fresh Water
  • Models, Biological
  • Oceans and Seas
  • Stochastic Processes
  • Trees