A test system to evaluate the susceptibility of Oregon, USA, native stream invertebrataes to triclopyr and carbaryl

Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001 Oct;20(10):2205-14. doi: 10.1897/1551-5028(2001)020<2205:atstet>2.0.co;2.


The susceptibility of six indigenous macroinvertebrate species representative of U.S. Pacific Northwest streams (Ameletus sp., Brachycentrus americanus, Calineuria californica, Cinygma sp., Lepidostoma unicolor, Psychoglypha sp. early and late instar) to formulated triclopyr ester (herbicide) and carbaryl (insecticide) was determined using laboratory bioassays. Acute toxicity was expressed as the lethal concentration to 50% (LC50) and 1% (LC1) of the test population based on a 96-h exposure duration. Carbaryl was found to be 1,000 times more toxic than triclopyr for all the organisms tested. The LCI values (7.5, 28.8, 9.0, 3.0, 9.5, 14.8, 33.8 microg/L, respectively, for carbaryl and 1.8, 3.9, 4.0, 4.2, 29.0, 16.1 mg/L, respectively, for triclopyr) were used in the calculation of hazardous concentration to 5% of the stream macroinvertebrate community (HC5) based on the lower 95% confidence limit (HC5/95). The hazardous concentration (HC5/95) for triclopyr was 0.11 mg/L and for carbaryl ranged from 0.43 to 0.66 microg/L, respectively. Triclopyr and carbaryl symptomology were analyzed for two organisms, C. californica and Cinygma sp. Carbaryl symptomology included knockdown and moribund states with severity and time of appearance being a function of dose. In triclopyr poisoning, death occurred suddenly with little or no symptomology. Time to 50% mortality (LT50) values were consistently higher for C. californica than for Cinygma sp. exposed to both chemicals at similar concentrations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbamates*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Glycolates / toxicity*
  • Herbicides / toxicity*
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Invertebrates*
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Risk Assessment
  • Time Factors
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / adverse effects*


  • Carbamates
  • Glycolates
  • Herbicides
  • Insecticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • triclopyr