360 degree feedback: accuracy, reactions, and perceptions of usefulness

J Appl Psychol. 2001 Oct;86(5):930-42. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.930.


This study examined how 360 degree feedback ratings and self-other rating discrepancies related to reactions to feedback, perceptions of feedback accuracy, perceived usefulness of the feedback, and recipients' receptivity to development. The results indicated that less favorable ratings were related to beliefs that feedback was less accurate and to negative reactions. Negative reactions and perceptions that feedback was less accurate were related to beliefs that the feedback was less useful. Those who found feedback less useful were perceived by a facilitator as less development-focused. Goal orientation did not moderate the relationship between ratings and perceptions of accuracy or reactions to feedback. Goal orientation was related to perceptions of usefulness of the process several weeks after receipt of feedback. The results question widely held assumptions about 360 degree feedback that negative and discrepant feedback motivates positive change.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Employee Performance Appraisal*
  • Feedback
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interprofessional Relations
  • Leadership
  • Male
  • Peer Group
  • Perception*
  • Reproducibility of Results