Cardiac involvement in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: a hypertensive heart disease

Clin Nephrol. 2001 Sep;56(3):211-20.


Background: There is little information regarding the occurrence and distribution of cardiovascular abnormalities during the course of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in three different groups of ADPKD patients to determine the profile and prevalence of cardiac involvement in this population.

Methods: Doppler color echocardiography was performed in 130 ADPKD patients. Patients were divided into normotensive (Group I, n=60), hypertensive (Group II, n=32) and those undergoing hemodialysis (Group III, n=38).

Results: There was a progressive increase in left ventricular mass (LVM) index (88.6+/-19.7, 127.6+/-40.4 and 150.5+/-56.5 g/m2, p < 0.0001) and in the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (3%, 43%, 62%, p < 0.0001) in Groups I, II and III, respectively. E/A ratio < 1 was found in 2% of normotensives, 46% of hypertensives and 62% of hemodialysis patients (p < 0.0001). Prevalence ofmitral valve prolapse and aortic and/or mitral regurgitation was 4.3% and 8.6%, respectively, in non-dialysis patients. The majority of valvular abnormalities occurred in dialysis patients, and were generally related to annular mitral calcification (28%) or aortic valve calcification (38%). Age, sex, systolic blood pressure (BP) and hemoglobin were independent predictors of LVM index in the entire population, systolic BP and creatinine in non-dialysis patients and systolic BP in dialysis patients. Age, heart rate and diastolic BP in the entire group, and age, heart rate and LVM index in non-dialysis patients remained as independent predictors of abnormal diastolic function.

Conclusions: Cardiac involvement in ADPKD patients is a continuous process that evolves during the course of this disease. It is characterized by a low prevalence of specific valvular abnormalities, a progressive increase in LVM, LVH, and diastolic dysfunction, which are greatest in the latter stages of the disease. This study confirms the major influence of BP on cardiovascular abnormalities of ADPKD patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diastole
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / complications*
  • Heart Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Valve Diseases / complications
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / complications
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / complications*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / therapy
  • Regression Analysis
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Risk Factors