Ramipril and the development of diabetes

JAMA. 2001 Oct 17;286(15):1882-5. doi: 10.1001/jama.286.15.1882.


Context: Type 2 diabetes is a growing clinical and public health problem. Preventive efforts related to lifestyle modification are not always successful; therefore, alternative prevention strategies need to be studied.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in preventing diabetes among high-risk persons.

Design, setting, and participants: The randomized, controlled Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation trial of 5720 patients older than 55 years without known diabetes but with vascular disease who were followed up for a mean of 4.5 years. The study included 267 hospitals in 19 countries and was conducted between 1994 and 1999.

Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ramipril, up to 10 mg/d (n = 2837), or placebo (n = 2883).

Main outcome measure: Diagnosis of diabetes determined from self-report at follow-up visits every 6 months, compared between the 2 groups.

Results: One hundred and two individuals (3.6%) in the ramipril group developed diabetes compared with 155 (5.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk [RR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.85, P<.001). Similar results were noted when different diagnostic criteria were used; in the ramipril group, the RR for diagnosis of diabetes and hemoglobin A(1c) greater than 110% was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.43-0.85), for initiation of glucose-lowering therapy, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.41-0.77), and for both, 0.51 (95% CI, 0.34-0.76). These effects were also consistently seen in several subgroups examined.

Conclusions: Ramipril is associated with lower rates of new diagnosis of diabetes in high-risk individuals. Because these results have important clinical and public health implications, this hypothesis requires prospective confirmation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Ramipril / therapeutic use*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Survival Analysis


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Ramipril