Hypoxia and oxidative stress in breast cancer. Hypoxia and tumourigenesis

Breast Cancer Res. 2001;3(5):318-22. doi: 10.1186/bcr314. Epub 2001 Jul 17.


The microenvironmental hypoxia that arises as a consequence of the development of a solid tumour also acts to promote tumour growth. Hypoxia induces the expression of key components of the angiogenic and apoptotic signalling cascades, the glycolytic pathway and various cell-cycle control proteins. At the cellular level it mediates the infiltration and accumulation of tumour-associated macrophages within avascular tumour regions. Complex interactions between tumour cell and macrophage hypoxia-regulated gene products and their associated pathways form the basis for the hypoxic promotion of tumourigenesis and malignant progression.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Breast / blood supply
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Cell Hypoxia*
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Oxidative Stress*