Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) has a multifactorial etiology, with major genetic-susceptibility determinants located in the HLA and insulin-gene (INS) regions. Linkage data implicating other disease-susceptibility loci are conflicting. This is likely due to (1) the limited power for detection of contributions of additional susceptibility loci, given the limited number of informative families available for study, (2) factors such as genetic heterogeneity between populations, and (3) potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. To circumvent some of these problems, we have conducted a genomewide linkage analysis for T1DM-susceptibility loci in 408 multiplex families from Scandinavia, a population expected to be homogeneous for genetic and environmental factors. In addition to verifying the HLA and INS susceptibility loci, the study provides confirmation of IDDM15 on chromosome 6q21. Suggestive evidence of additional susceptibility loci was found on chromosomes 2p, 5q, and 16p. For some loci, the support for linkage increased substantially when families were stratified on the basis of HLA or INS genotypes, with statistically significant heterogeneity between the stratified subgroups. Our data support both the existence of non-HLA genes of significance for T1DM and interaction between HLA and non-HLA loci in the determination of the T1DM phenotype.