Non-health care-seeking male United States Army recruits were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (n=2245) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=884), using a urine ligase chain reaction test to determine prevalence and potential risk factors for infection. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.3%. Black race, a new sex partner, a history of trichomonas, and the presence of symptoms were associated with chlamydial infection. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae infection was 0.6%. Only a reported history of or positive test for C. trachomatis was associated with gonorrheal infection. Of those testing positive for chlamydia, 14% reported symptoms versus 40% of those with gonorrhea. Younger age was not a predictor of either infection, as has been shown for women. A substantial number of male army recruits are infected with C. trachomatis, but few are infected with N. gonorrhoeae. Screening on the basis of symptoms alone would miss the majority of both infections.