The prevalence of chlamydial DNA determined by PCR and in-situ hybridisation (ISH) in fresh tissue specimens (endometrium, fallopian tube and ovary) was investigated in 33 women presenting with ectopic pregnancy (EP), 14 women with tubal factor infertility (TFI) and 50 control patients from the UK and the West Indies. In the UK EP group, chlamydial DNA was detected by PCR in 56% of patients; similar results were found in the Trinidad EP group (67%). In the TFI group, chlamydial DNA was detected in (71%) of patients by PCR. The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA by ISH was highest in the TFI group (43%). Women presenting with EP and TFI showed evidence of previous or current genital C. trachomatis infection, underlining the importance of this microorganism in the development of these conditions. Importantly, chlamydial DNA could be detected in DNA preparations from the endometrium, fallopian tube and ovary of EP and TFI patients at the time of surgery.